G02 and G03 – Circular Interpolation

In CNC programming, circular interpolation involves moving the tool along a circular path, with a specified feed rate and radius. The G02 and G03 commands are used for clockwise and counterclockwise circular interpolation, respectively. When the G02 or G03 command is executed, the machine will move the tool along a circular path, with the center of the circle defined by the I, J, and K parameters, or the radius defined by the R parameter.

The R parameter specifies the radius of the circle directly, while the IJK parameters specify the distance from the current position to the center of the circle. However, the R and IJK parameters are not used in the same block for circular interpolation.

For example, to move the tool along a clockwise circular path with a radius of 3.0 units, centered at the point with coordinates X=12.0, Y=7.0, you can use either the R parameter or the IJK parameters, but not both in the same block.

Using the R parameter, the command would be:

G02 X12.0 Y7.0 R3.0 F100.0

Using the IJK parameters, the command would be:

G02 X12.0 Y7.0 I2.0 J2.0 F100.0

Note that the I and J parameters in the second example represent the offset distance from the current position to the center of the circle in the X and Y axes, respectively. The K parameter can also be used to specify an offset in the Z-axis for circular interpolation in the XZ or YZ plane.

The G02 and G03 commands are commonly used in CNC machining for cutting operations such as drilling, pocketing, and contouring, where circular paths need to be machined. The selection of the plane and the radius is done using the G17/G18/G19 command and the IJK or R parameters, respectively.

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