Optocoupler or Opto-isolator, Symbol, Construction, Working, Types and Applications
In electrical and electronic engineering , we often come up with certain circuits where a digital logic circuit such as a digital logic circuitmicroprocessor or microcontroller, etc. is used to control or regulate high power flow. But have you ever wondered how something so sensitive operating at very low voltage can control such large voltage? The answer is an optocoupler based on “electrical Isolation”.
What is Electrical Isolation?
Electrical isolation means the introduction of a non-conducting material between the circuit to prevent the direct flow of current. There is no physical contact between the circuits but the circuit can be coupled together to transfer energy by other means such as magnetic coupling (transformers) and Opto-coupling using light (optocouplers) etc.
Electrical Isolation is used to prevent unwanted current flow between two circuits. It prevents high hazardous voltage flow between circuits, and rectify noise and other distortions between the circuits.
What is Optocoupler?
An Optocoupler or an Opto-isolator (also known as photocoupler and optical isolator) is an electronic component that transfers signals using optical path between two electrically isolated circuits through light. It provides electrical isolation between two circuits that operate at different voltage levels. There is no physical contact (through a conductor) between them e.g. they are electrically isolated.
It is used to protect low voltage circuits from high voltage circuits by preventing the hazardous current flow and also eliminating unwanted noise.
It is made of a light emitter and a light sensor in a single package Light emitting diode (LED) is normally used as the light emitter while a light-sensitive device such as a photodiode , phototransistor, thyristor, etc. is used as a light sensor. The LED is connected to a low voltage circuit that sends a signal by converting it into the light beam. The light sensor converts back the light energy into electrical energy to control a high voltage circuit.
Symbol of Optocoupler
The symbol of optocoupler shows an LED as a light emitter and a phototransistor (photosensor) as a light receiver. Generally, the light receiver is a phototransistor as shown in the figure below.
Optocoupler is made of semiconductor material. It is generally made of LED and phototransistor. The LED is used as a light source while the phototransistor is used as a light sensor. The space between them is filled with glass, air, or transparent epoxy resin that has very high electrical resistance but easily passes light.
The LED is at the input side connected with the low voltage circuit. While the phototransistor is at the output side connected with the high voltage circuit.
As we know that the internal structure of optocoupler consists of LED and phototransistor. The LED is connected to the input supply with a series resistor. While the phototransistor is connected with the output supply and load as shown in the figure below.
When current flows through the LED, it emits infrared IR light. The intensity of light depends on the supply voltage and current. A resistor in series is used to limit the current flowing through the LED. The IR light strikes the phototransistor. The phototransistor converts the light into the current that controls the current flow between its emitter and collector. The amount of current depends on the intensity of light whereas the light intensity depends on the current supply to LED. Therefore the input current at the low voltage side can control the current flow in the high voltage circuit without any electrical connection.
The phototransistor can operate in two modes
In saturation mode, the optocoupler is used as a switch that has two states ON state and OFF state. In the ON state, it allows full current through it while the OFF state fully blocks the current flow. This mode is used to switch ON/OFF high power circuits using a microcontroller or digital logic circuit.
Linear or Active Mode
In linear or Active mode, the output current is directly proportional to the intensity of the incident light. Where the light intensity depends on the input current. This mode is used as an amplifier where the input current is amplified into the output of the phototransistor.
Characteristics of Optocoupler
The following characteristics define the performance of the optocoupler.
It is the maximum voltage or potential difference that can exist between its input and output workout causing any damage to the insulation. It is calculated in Vrms at medium humidity of around 50%.
Response time is the time taken to update the output after a change in the input. It shows how quickly the optocoupler changes its output. The response time depends on the type of photosensor being used in the optocoupler.
Current Transfer Ratio CTR
CTR or current transfer ratio is the ratio of output current to the input current is optocoupler. It also depends on the type of photosensor.
Common Mode Rejection CMR
It is the ability of the optocoupler’s photosensor to reject any fast noise transients between the input and output. It is also known as common mode transient immunity CMTI or common mode transient rejection CMTR. Optocoupler does provide high voltage isolation for DC and low frequency between its input and output. But a sudden voltage surge can cause current to flow between the input and output due to the capacitance between the input and output and create noise in the system.